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tv   Antarctica On The Edge  Al Jazeera  December 2, 2017 8:33am-9:01am +03

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hundred sixty children from the area which is near the capital damascus nine people have died in recent weeks while waiting for permission from the government to be allowed to leave. well those are the headlines the news continues here on al-jazeera after earthrise statement that so much and by fidel. when the power goes out. there's only one man to turn to. local heroes to many he steals electricity. but keeping the lights on is dangerous. as your forces cracked spock speaking to flight. powerless a witness documentary at this time on al-jazeera. parts
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of antarctica a woman faster than anywhere else on the planet this is having an effect on wildlife and as altering deep ocean currents which regulate the world's climate from the poles to the equator. as antarctica's ice melts we're seeing global sea levels rise and unpredictable changes to with world wide. and this earth rise special we visit the world's most remote consonant to see the effects of climate change firsthand. i'm tired as an obvious winning the next month on this research vessel travelling around antarctica with a group of scientists who are trying to understand how the changes taking place there will affect us all.
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join the expedition and hobart australia the russian research ship academy contrition a cough has been hired by the swiss polar institute to circumnavigate antarctica. it'll be a floating the bar tree from which fifty five scientists will do twenty two different experiments. david wallsten has been visiting antarctica for more than fifty years and is the expedition chief scientist. because the antarctic and the southern ocean actually influence the whole of the global weather system and all the currents in the oceans it matters to everybody it also matters if they're on top of it begins to melt as far as world sea level is concerned it's a larger source of new water out it to the oceans in the world so even if you live somewhere a long way away if you're low lying on the coast the antarctic matters to you. the
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voyage will take us two and a half thousand kilometers south from home to the edge of antarctica will then travel five thousand kilometers east making stops at a number of islands. then after a month at sea he will return to port in southern chile. the first we must cross what are known as the furious fifty's in screaming sixty's latitudes nine for the ferocious with. we face hundred kilometer hour winds and ten meter away. it's a nearly reminder of the potent energy of the ocean. as
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we sail selfie and see become. they in on the six morning we wake up to see ice. soon we're forced to navigate around i. some the size of a football pitch others are more than one hundred kilometers long. then finally we arrive at the minutes glass in antarctica. and he lays in the powerful winds coming in off the glass and dropping down into the sea this is the one place on the planet at sea level and it's certainly playing up that reputation tonight. the mets glassy a fascinate scientists because in two thousand and thirteen an enormous chunk
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around seventy five by thirty five kilometers broke off after it was not by a large iceberg. this is dramatically changed the flow of ice in the area it's also exposed large areas of ocean floor to study for the first time. the weather comes right from the ship that's balanced against the glass yet this gives the scientists a stable platform to begin their work. this suffering yeah exactly gear mass a is a biologist and in charge of an ambitious project something out of a science fiction yeah it's quite amazing. so much here on it i call it the swiss army knife the swiss army knife and time discovering yes exactly this time through some things ok. so well i see
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something you must know his own is cameras basically we work very hard to finish and cameras. digital still camera one fork a camera here basically we are interested. very soon. along column along with the from the ratio. the team expects to see a vertical wall of ice dropping five hundred meters from the surface but instead there's a surprise. they discover a huge underwater cavern beneath this part of the glass in. the sea water is warmer than expected and this is unusual evidence of now we're really close to the ice and discovered that it was really water ice everything was going to play out in
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a way we're still going to a lot of. that yet completely rock that we were not expecting. another especially in this kind of so far into the glacial. warmer ocean currents and now flowing through the south towards antarctica scientists believe the kind of melt we've seen here who contribute more than a major to global sea level rise by the end of the century and up to thirteen meters over the next five hundred years. or less is like rivers of ice so when the ocean water warms and they melt the remaining ice moves faster towards the sea a team of glaciologists want to see how this is happening and ice cores from next to the glass is age seven meters down they find something unexpected.
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they say the bubbles in. this thing they probably can raise can time water a liquid salty water. finding so water here suggests warmer ocean. parents are having an impact possibly weakening the plessy from beneath. thankfully copters return n.p.r. schools are loaded on board. back on the ship they placed in a giant freezer the history of this eyes is the first calls it's not. going to the continent and then a depth the pressure of the snow above it is compressing compressing into at a depth of about sixty meters this will be so compressed that a form solid ice one of the principles of core science is that while that's
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happening the air. from the atmosphere that that was in the lead is in the snow when it is slowly being locked into the is in these bubbles forming right. gradually as we get deeper under more and more pressure these bubbles get isolated and you see these little bubbles and that's when we get deeper into the us because we want to look at carbon dioxide concentrations back thousands hundreds of thousands of years it's a little puppets of the atmosphere that we get into so you see that process starting here. few our schools have been taken from this part of antarctica so there's little specific information about how the climate is changing but it's hope these samples will help fill this gap. further east live the balun a islands for most of the year they're locked in sea ice but a visit like this in summer means a team of scientists can drink the ocean floor and i've been drafted in to help.
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them. with getting. a certain amount of the rocks and a lot of the water have come up in the name so the technique is pretty much that is the thought that the last battle rocks in the mud and then after that they can get . places that have come up with. a particular interest of those that take carbon from the environment by locking it away in their shells these they end up being buried in the sea bed when they die. another time. over the last hundred years carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere have risen dramatically largely as a result of al burning of fossil fuels. the role these creatures play to counteract this needs to be better understood and incorporated in climate change models.
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something is the word. for the more than a centimeter. this. is made of carbon. these guys here the pressing worms and they study things here. that don't go by much but there are hundreds of little combinations animals that. story. as well. and for the stars in. the. balance. of the system. the. one source at the creatures are taken to the lab and photographed. the sea mouse is a notable catch. so to this brittle star another uncoils itself
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measuring around fifty centimeters across. many of these creatures will be preserved and after the expedition the d.n.i. will be analyzed giving the researchers detailed data about the distribution and diversity. having picked over the summer look for anything of interest to us the folks like the sony want to do it on a ship like this extra ballast so. the robust team also turned their cameras on life on the sea floor. at a depth of nine hundred meters they take samples of cold water corals and a wide variety of other species. they also take see them and course these will give
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them clues about what's being buried in the ocean floor and how it's changed over time. but it's later in the dive that an extraordinary observation is my. we have this sea star where precisely a brittle star crawling on the sea floor which we believe that eight or scavenger but certainly give the fish to scrawling it just in the fish with it poison we don't know yet because that's just me you would ever seen that before and it just in a fish live on the side and sadly this will start just roll it it's trying to eat the fish which can swim in it at a speed watch watch much faster than any kind of of sea star you can call it a sea floor so that's quite amazing just to see that that's that that's the when you. close analysis of the footage reveals ten examples of this. behavior. these are two of the most abundant species living in antarctic waters
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and interaction of this nature has important implications for understanding climate change all the common which is contained in today's fish. done nothing to both or will do isn't ultimately very there we do know quite a lot of organisms including when organisms which are very efficient are poisoning their prey well i sing this is the case but we still have to to do a bit more research we've made a discovery we're now in is that we have to to do further research to really understand what we're seeing. we're. antarctica has the cleanest year on the planet and at each stop on the voyage atmospheric scientists julia shamali has used a mobile kids to take some pills. she's also
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packs a suite of instruments into a shipping container on board i do has a good effect your the big red head out here on day. one and thanks very much why it looks the past of him why he's an interested there was so actually in particular we're interested in the tiny particles that are in the air we call them aerosol aerosol particular and they are very important for the water cycle and because they form clouds without these tiny particles we would not have any clouds in our atmosphere so it would never rain. earth would be a completely different planet to see if hot to come spend ten full droplets on not that we use this machine and then a cloud machine here that you know i should like here are some are making our own cloud in here so it's very important floss to understand politics clouds formed
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before the industrial revolution before humankind actually started burning fossil fuels in large amounts. because it makes a big difference for our climate for the clouds and for the hydrological cycle in general. climate change models a generally better at predicting variations in temperature rather than precipitation let's hope the data from this experiment will mean that. as the ship continues east we come across more c.-r. ice. without crunching our white through the i. because we've come across the sea ice flies i'm going to drop a camera down to say can have a look at the balance doing down there through really quite remarkable. luckily for us anyway the balance of this twelve thousand tongue ice breaker rides up all over the ice for ensuring that as well that. the power crunching
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through the sea ice. ok comes another enormous chunk to see how this one if it is up to the bowels of the academy they called pushed out of the so i. the next stop is it one of the smallest audience on this leg of the voyage just five football pitches inside schools on and is washed out of above why. and in stormy conditions at successive only by helicopter. it's too windswept for seabirds to nice to hear that like an en masse do grow in the cracked volcanic rocks. hopefully with the moss in the soil we're going to find interesting that just not here is how the animals are
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cope through not any i guess climate change the past explicitly natural but also how they may move and adapt. you know facing the future. before we can be flown off the island back to the ship there's a sudden change in the with. the helicopters clearly being grounded on the ship they're not able to return to the island to break us up we have enough equipment with us. ten ten and rations for four days inside and there's a great concern there but it does start you thinking about how you could possibly survive on an island like this so revived and so far we're just well. fortunately the way the lifts just long enough to fly us off the island and was saved from either having to find out. back on the ship the samples are dried it's hoped any living things will drop out this lichen is also examined and
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within it there's a discovery smaller than a pinhead this is the first time this tiny mite has been found here similar mites have been found in other parts of the continent but it's likely that this is a new species something a new d.n.a. tests after the expedition can confirm. the landscape is incredibly old so you know probably started off one hundred eighty million years ago would have been a tropical rainforest and it's now looks like it does both sides and so these are some of the few things that are probably manage to hang on that long and so now there are some of the more successful organisms that live here. anyway. the teams made to discuss their next move from satellite images it appears the next island on their route peter the first is surrounded by sea ice this will make
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a visit difficult. instead some of the scientists call for the voyage to divert they've spotted clear water around a coastal area which is normally docked in sea ice it's a rare opportunity for them to attempt to visit. the ship's course is changed and we arrive at mt siple it's one of the continent's tallest and most isolated volcanoes rising more than three thousand meters from the sea. we scout the area and find a large number of a daily penguins. but it's certainly coming so we're in touch with to see them in their natural environment see what an extraordinary animal they are and just how incredibly tough they are living in the sea they're going to walk. well these valleys and then they stick on the top. but.
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by the time we return to the ship it's late in the evening. but at this time of year at such high latitudes it doesn't get dark. instead there's a long and spectacular sun six. the following morning we fly back to mt sinai school lesson one percent of antarctica is ice free making a place like this prime real estate and nice thing. many of the chicks have been left to fend for themselves while their parents go to sea to catch currall the pinkish color of the shrimp like food often ending up staining their front us as far as we know scientists have never visited this colony before so the group we're with once and i how large it is and whether there's any other species living here we have behind me a whole lot of adele leaping going on that's going to turn around here show you
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this chap here he is looking a bit odd because he's losing his baby feel this is just a few months old isn't safe he's very friendly. when the parents return there much in demand sometimes from their own offspring but frequently from other hungry birds hoping for a feed it's late in the season and many are exercising their wings and preparation to leave. nothing about the other three versions they give you this sort of canary in the cold while indication as to what's happening in the third ocean and with the griffin told me it's big. this colony appears to be thriving but on the antarctic peninsula to the east of here it's a different story. the area is warming faster than any other place on the planet and colonies of a daily penguins like these have been abandoning their nesting sites and moving
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south perhaps in search of colder locations certainly up sitting many hundreds if not thousands of years of breeding behavior. over the previous weeks we've been to some extraordinary places and seen dramatic evidence of climate change it's change many of the scientists feel should be ringing alarm bells in the rest of the world. in the same way that the antarctic sea ice is actually changing in terms of its distribution pattern the sea is warming off the antarctic peninsula the glaciers are retreating out thick sea ice is at its lowest yet known these are all indications that the world as a whole is warming and that we need to be concerned about the future we certainly know enough to say we need to act now we should have acted yes but they figurative for speaking there's not much time. to act into the future i think. where
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we're very clear about this. we come back with a better knowledge we're still have some work to do we're already kind of learning new. experiments new its traditions to try and really understand what you see. the expedition is connected tens of thousands of samples and millions of megabytes of data. for the scientists who will return to their nabs around the world these years of work here. we're just scratching the surface to understand how antarctica is the southern border so significant when it comes to the broader issues of climate change and and really when the earth is going to go where our climate is going to go in the years ahead. the scientific findings made on this forward will add weight to
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what's now overwhelming proof that our planet is warming and that climate change is posing a serious threat to the sustainability of law. the evidence is clearer than ever what's needed now is for people everywhere to accept the science engage with the problem and take action. on counting the cost the goldilocks oil price is there such a thing as the perfect price of crude for consumers and producers financial bubbles and big point was the future of job creation in africa the only continent where the young outnumber the counting the cost at this time on al-jazeera. the big breaking news story can be chaotic and frantic behind the scenes. people shouting instructions in your ear your client provide the best most accurate pump
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today's information as quickly as you can. it's when you come off on things that you realize this is history in the making. right. a dead end road trip across west africa on a mission to redefine a continent too often misrepresented. the weapon of choice to digital cameras.
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it was one of the new african football that feeling takes on the rainy season on these quest for the fact even his story of creative got rather invisible boy this this time on al-jazeera. al-jazeera and for us. and i'm down in jordan in doha with a quick reminder of the top stories here on al-jazeera u.s. president donald trump's former national security advisor has pleaded guilty to lying to the f.b.i. .


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